Originally called the Parque del Buen Retiro, or “pleasant retreat,” is a public park since the late 19th century, in 1868. It hasn’t always been so, the 1.4 km2 (350 acres) at the edge of the city center was originally built as a retreat for the Spanish Monarchy – hence its name.
The park was planned in the 1550s and redesigned, adding a palace and a theatre, under the supervision of Gaspar de Guzmán, Conde-Duque de Olivares. Both buildings burned in 1734. King Ferdinand VI ordered the palace rebuilt, but it was razed during the Peninsular War; a remnant now serves as the War Museum.